Rabu, 28 Juli 2010



1. Understanding LearningLearning activities is never separated from the activities of human life. Learning does not always have to be done in the school environment, but can be implemented anywhere, both within the family and society.
In formal education, the learning activities undertaken by students is that many of the main activities contributing to the success or failure in achieving educational goals. Learning is not a destination, but a process to achieve the goal. So learn the steps or procedures taken to achieve that goal.
According to traditional opinion, learning is defined as "efforts to add and collect the amount of knowledge" (Aqib, 2002: 42). According to traditional opinion is that emphasis in the study were children given various lessons to increase knowledge it has, by way of memorization.
Meanwhile, according to experts of modern education, learning is defined as "A form of growth or change in a person who stated in ways that the new act thanks to experience and practice" (Aqib, 2002: 42). The new behavior is for example the severity of such from not knowing to knowing, the emergence of new pengetian, as well as the rise and development of properties of social, moral, and emotional.
According to Ernest R. Hilgard in his book "Theories of Learning" which was quoted by Zainal Aqib (2002: 43) study is defined as follows: "Learning is the process by which an activity originates or is changed trough training procedures (whether in the laboratory or in the natural environment) as distinguished from changes by factors not attribute Able to training ". This means that learning is a process that gave birth to or modify an activity through road workout (whether in the laboratory or in natural environment) as distinguished from the changes by factors that do not include exercise. In this definition says that someone who is learning, its behavior will change than ever before. So learn not only about the intellectual field alone, but on the whole child's personal.
According W.S. Winkel in Max Darsono (2000: 4) defines learning as "a mental activity / psychic that took place in an active interaction with the environment that result in changes in knowledge, understanding, skills, attitudes and values."
Furthermore, according to the dictionary paedagogik in Zainal Aqib (2002: 43) said that "Learning is trying to have the knowledge or skills". Someone has to learn something proven by his actions. Evidence that a person has to learn is to have a change in a person's behavior, such as from not knowing to knowing, from not understanding to be understood.
From some understanding of the above can be seen that learning is a process attempts by individuals to acquire a new behavior changes as a whole as a result of the individual's own experience with the environment. Thus, it can be concluded that learning is a process of behavioral changes that occur in a person due to interaction with the environment a conscious, continuous, active, and directed that mernyebabkan changes in knowledge, understanding and skills.

2. The characteristics of Learning
According Suryabrata in the book Educational Psychology (1995: 249) argued about the characteristics of learning activities as follows:

1. Learning is an activity that brings change in individuals who learn in terms of actual changes in behavior or potential.
2. The amendment is essentially an acquisition of new skills applicable in a relatively long time.
3. These changes occur because the business was doing on purpose.
3. Definition of Learning Achievement
According Tu'u (2004: 75) "Achievement is the result achieved by someone when doing tasks or activities terterntu". Subsequently according Arifin (1991: 3) "Achievement is defined as the ability, skills and attitude of a person in terms of getting things done."
While the study by Darsono (2000: 64) is "A behavior or activity in order to develop themselves, both in aspects of cognitive, psychomotor and attitude." Furthermore, according to the dictionary paedagogik in Zainal Aqib (2002: 43) said that "Learning is trying to have the knowledge or skills.
As for the meaning of learning achievement was "The term that has been achieved as the business experienced by individuals directly and merupakn activities that aim to acquire knowledge, skills, intelligence, skill and forth in condition and circumstances" (MOEC, 1984: 298) . Meanwhile, according Tu'u (2004: 75) academic achievement is the "mastery of knowledge or skills developed by the subjects, usually indicated by test scores or the number value assigned by the teacher."
Thus, learning achievement is the result that has been achieved by learners in the learning process as indicated by test scores or the number of outcome evaluations conducted Oleg teachers. So the learning achievement of students focused on the value or number that reached students in the learning process at school. This value is mainly in terms of cognitive, because this aspect is often assessed by the teacher to know the mastery of knowledge is used as a measure of student learning achievement.

4. Learning Achievement Function
According to Arifin (1991: 3), academic achievement has several functions, while functions are as follows:
1. As an indicator of the quality and quantity of knowledge students have mastered.
2. As a symbol of satisfying the desire to know.
3. As the material information in educational innovation.
4. As internal and external indicators of an educational institution.
5. Can be used as an indicator of absorptive protégé.
Based on the learning achievement, a teacher can find out whether students have mastered the subject matter or not. Student achievement in addition to functioning as an indicator of the success of certain programs, but also as an indicator of the quality of an educational institution.

5. Assessment of Learning Outcomes
Student achievement can be seen from the value of student learning outcomes are concerned. Evaluation or assessment of learners' learning outcome is basically an integral part of the learning process, which aimed to assess the ability of learners.
According Suharsimi (2002: 6-8), in education, especially the world of schooling, assessment has a meaning that can be viewed from three aspects, namely:
1. Meaning for students
With the holding of the assessment, so students can know how far has managed to follow the lessons given by teachers.
2. Meaning for teachers
With the assessment results obtained by the teachers will be able to know which students are entitled to continue his lessons as already mengusai subject matter, checkers know students who have not managed to master the course material. That way a teacher can find out the accuracy of the material being taught and also find out whether the method is used for this is right or not.
3. Meaning for schools
By conducting the assessment, it can be seen to what extent-siwanya student learning outcomes, so it can be seen also that the learning conditions that created the school is in conformity with what is expected. The results of this study can also be made as a reflection of the quality of schools is concerned, can be used as consideration for school planning for the days to come, and also can serve as a guide for schools to find out what has been done by the schools already meet the standards or did not acquisition will be seen from the figures that good by the students.

6. Factors Influencing Learning Achievement
There are many factors that affect student achievement. As for the factors that affect student achievement by Suharsimi consist of: age, maturity, health, fatigue, mood, motivation, interests, study habits, family, school, society, nature, physical environment (1990: 21).
According to Shah (2003: 144) the factors that affect student achievement are: the soundness sense of hearing, eyesight, fatigue, intelligence, attitude of students, gifted students, students' interest, motivation of students, teachers, administrative staff, classmates, building school and its location, student residence and the location, learning tools, state of weather, used students' learning time, strategies and methods of student learning.
According Walgito (2004: 151) the factors that affect student achievement include: physical health, fatigue, motivation, interest, concentration, natural curoiousity, self confidence, self dicipline, intelligence, memory, place, learning equipment, atmosphere, time learning and social
Based on the above description, it is known that factors affecting student achievement can be grouped into internal factors and external factors students students. In more detail these factors can be described as follows:
1. Internal factors, ie factors that originates from within self-esteem, which consists of:
a. Physiological aspects (physical nature),
such as: the soundness sense of hearing, eyesight, fatigue and so on.
b. Psychological factors,
included into the psychological factors, among others, mood, motivation, interests and study habits, intelligence level, student attitudes, student aptitude, interests of students, discipline.

2. External factors, namely the factors originating from outside the self-esteem, which consists of:
a. The social environment,
which belong to the social environment, among others are teachers, administrative staff and classmates who can influence students' learning spirit, family and community.
b. Non-social environment,
which belong to the environment nonsosial both physical and non physical include a school building and its location, student residence and the location, learning tools, weather and time that used student learning.
Given the many factors that affect student achievement, so for this study to examine things more deeply, in this study the researcher will focus research on aspects of student discipline, the learning environment of students and teachers to teach variations.

In the process of learning a student, these factors are interrelated and influence each other, either directly or indirectly affect student achievement.

Based on the above description can be taken a conclusion that the factors that affect student achievement include: internal factors and external factors. Internal factors as the factors of the student and external factors as a factor in students from outside the self. Internal factors that affect student achievement one of them is a factor in student discipline learning and external factors affecting the learning achievement among other environmental factors to learn and also teach teachers variation factor in this case refers to the quality of teaching.

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